Holistic Approach to Wellness
Gluten-free, Casein (dairy)-free (GFCF)
Ingredients and Substitutions
The following will help you navigate the many possible substitutions when converting to GFCF.
Oils, Margarines and Butter
Sugars and Sweeteners
Vanilla and Vinegars
“Soy” and Worcestershire Sauce
There are many possible combinations of flours you can mix to use in recipes. Here are some of the most common. You can find more information about pre-packaged GF Flour mixes at gfcfdiet.com/bakingcanning.htm and http://www.allergygrocer.com/
Please note: some commercial GF baking mixes (like Arrowhead Mills ) contain more than flours (such as baking powder, salt and other ingredients). Whereas some other commercial mixes (like Bob’s Red Mill) only contain flours.
Consider your GI health when you start a gluten and/or allergy free diet. In most cases the GI track “gut” is inflamed and cannot handle gluten free grains as well as you’d like. Start slowly introducing one thing at a time to see how your body reacts. In most cases it’s best to use nut blends if not intolerant. Bean flours can inflame the gut too because of the high fiber. * A good reason to work with a professional when starting a gluten free diet to make sure you are introducing the right foods.
Some GFCF flours:
Brown Rice Flour
Sweet Rice Flour
Potato Starch Flour
Navy Bean Flour
Cornmeal and flour
Oat and Millet Flours, while naturally GF, are not considered safe on the diet for Celiac as most are grown with, or manufactured with and therefore cross contaminated. Look for Gluten Free labels.
* Were always favoring nut flours for the protein. Be careful as a lot of people who are new to the gluten free diet end up using a lot of the flour blends full of carbohydrates that lack fiber and forget the high fiber content in the bean flour. Below are a few mixes you can create if you are comfortable in the kitchen or opt for an organic blend you can find in the stores as mentioned above.
5 cups favorite bread style GFCF flour mixture
4 1/2 tbsp. baking powder
2 Tbsp. sugar
2 1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. absorbic acid powder
1 cup solid shortening, i.e., or 3/4 cup coconut oil/butter * coconut oil is the healthiest
Sift dry ingredients together. Cut in shortening with pastry blender until it resembles crumbs. Store in freeze for up to six months. Use in Bisquick ‘Impossible’ style recipes but watch for too much leavening when adding to recipes.
General Baking Mix by Carol Fenster
3 cups garfava bean flour
2 cups potato starch
2 cups cornstarch
1 cup tapioca flour
1 cup sorghum flour
Featherlight by Bette Hagman
1 cup rice flour
1 cup cornstarch
1 cup tapioca starch/flour
1 Tbsp. potato flour
1/8 cup potato flour
7/8 cup rice flour
1/4 cup chickpea flour
1 cup sorghum flour
1/4 cup sweet rice flour
1 cup brown rice flour
1/2 cup potato starch
1/2 cup sweet rice flour
1 Tbsp. unflavored gelatin
3 cups sorghum flour
1 cup tapioca flour
1/2 cup almond flour
Sorghum is the GFCF flour that I like most. It isn’t gritty like rice, it isn’t bitter like quinoa and bean flour, and it isn’t as allergenic as corn and soy. It is darker and denser than some, but delicious. Tapioca flour is great for holding things together and gives a nice crisp crust. Almond flour is mild tasting and adds protein. Sorghum is higher in protein as well, making this good for autistic kids- getting protein in them is so important. You can make big batches of this and keep it in the fridge for substituting. If your family is allergic to nuts, just leave out the almond flour.
There are a lot of types of milk substitutes available now. Here are just a few.
Vance’s DariFree (vanilla and chocolate) Potato Milk, Almond Breeze Almond Milk (plain, vanilla and chocolate), Hemp Milk (plain, vanilla and chocolate), Rice Milk (many brands are available in local grocery stores, make sure they are GFCF as some contain barley) plain, vanilla, chocolate, organic, some are in the refrigerated section too.
1 cup of cooked rice – warm out of the pot
4 cups warm water
put in blender and puree
add vanilla (1 tsp) or to taste – or almond flavor
add honey to taste
throw out the rice crumbs
It’s a lot cheaper. If you don’t like this recipe, change it to suit your needs. You need to drink it up in a week.
1 cup raw cashews, well rinsed
1 cup hot water
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. gluten-free vanilla (opt)
OR buy some fresh vanilla bean at the health food store
2 tsp. honey (or sweetener of choice)
Grind cashews in coffee grinder (best option) or put them in blender with water and blend well. Combine all ingredients in blender and add an additional 3-6 cups more cold water, to taste. Strain through a sieve to achieve smooth milk. For a chocolate milk version add raw cocoa powder to taste.
Also add almonds before blending for calcium and it adds body, or any other calcium supplement you might want to use. I also recently found gluten free brown rice syrup in my health food store. I added a little this last time, and you couldn’t tell the difference between the homemade and store bought.
3/4 cup almonds, blanched
1 tsp. honey
OR 1 dried pineapple ring, chopped
1/4 cup sesame seeds
5 cups water
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. gluten-free vanilla, or vanilla bean
It is best to first grind almonds in coffee grinder. In blender, place all the ingredients, with only a small amount of the water. Blend well and then add the remaining water. Line sieve with a cheesecloth and pour the almond milk through the cheesecloth. Chill before serving.
Cashew-Rice Milk or Cream
2/3 cup cooked brown rice, warm
1/2 cup cashews, raw and rinsed
1 tsp. vanilla, gluten free or vanilla bean
1/2 tsp. salt
3-4 tsp. honey or sweetener of choice
3 cups water for the milk or for cream, just enough water to blend the ingredients for a thicker consistency
1 banana (use only if using cream for dessert-type recipes)
In blender container, combine all ingredients and blend on high speed until smooth and creamy. It may take 2-3 minutes for the cashews to be thoroughly blended. Then add more water, a little at a time, until desired thickness is reached. For the cream, add as little water as possible to make a thick cream base for soups, gravies, and other recipes that need thickening. (Leave out the vanilla and the honey when using for soups and gravies). For milk to use on cereals or in recipes, add the full 3 cups of water. Chill before serving.
GFCF Margarines, Butters and Oils
Coconut Oil/Butter (substitute 3/4 cup coconut oil/butter for 1 cup shortening)
If you want to substitute oil for butter, margarine, or shortening you should keep in mind that it can lend greasiness to the finished product. It is not a direct substitute and the other liquid ingredients may need to be slightly reduced. Example: 1/3 to 1/4 cup oil = 1/2 cup butter, margarine, shortening or soy butter/margarine
Using fruit butters in place of oils in recipes
Because the fruit will add more sweetness than butter, reduce the sugar in your recipes a touch.
Think of the flavor of your recipe to judge which fruit flavor will work best. For example, prune puree works particularly well in chocolate desserts, such as brownies; and apples will add that festive fall flair to most quick breads.
In general, use 1/2 cup of pureed fruit in place of one cup of butter. You may need to add a tablespoon or two of vegetable shortening or oil back into the recipe (in addition to the fruit puree) to achieve the best results.
If you don’t have fresh fruit on hand, drained applesauce, strained baby food fruit, or a puree of water with any dried fruit (apples, apricots, peaches, etc.) will work in a pinch. Try a mixture of 1/2 cup applesauce and 1/2 cup vegetable oil as an excellent replacement for butter in cakes and quick breads.
Of course, you could always get a little fancy with the following recipe:
Apple-Pear Puree – Butter Baking Substitute – Use 5 Tablespoons of this substitute plus 2 Tablespoons of oil for every 1/2 cup of butter in baked goods.
2 Medium Apples, cored, peeled, and cut into chunks
2 Medium Pears, cored, peeled, and cut into chunks
2/3 cup Water
1 Tablespoon Lemon Juice
1 Tablespoon Lecithin Granules (available in most health food stores)
Put all ingredients in a saucepan bring to a simmer, cover, and cook 40 minutes, mashing occasionally. Press through a sieve to remove excess liquid (reserve and use for other recipes if desired). This recipe will last for several days in the refrigerator, and can be preserved in the freezer for up to 6 months.
15 oz. can of Pumpkin
1/4 cup Maple Syrup
1 Teaspoon Cinnamon
1/2 Teaspoon All Spice
1/4 Teaspoon Ground Cloves
In a small saucepan over medium-low heat, mix together the pumpkin mush and maple syrup until they’re both fully combined. If you prefer your spread to be sweeter, don’t be shy and feel free to add in as much syrup as it takes to satisfy that sweet tooth. Have fun with it – It’s pretty hard to screw this recipe up.
Continue to stir the pumpkin slowly for about 10 – 15 minutes, or until the mixture had thickened to a desirable consistency. The stirring is important though, so DON’T walk away! If you do, your pumpkin may scorch and get burnt onto the bottom of the pan, and that wouldn’t be so tasty. The black bits really don’t look to attractive, either. Anyway, once you’ve determined that it’s nice and thick, take your pan off the heat and you can go ahead and mix in all your spices. I also add in just a pinch of salt, because I believe that it helps to round out all the flavors and make them a bit brighter, but you don’t need to by all means. Enjoy!
Below are simple substitutions:
2 tbsp. corn starch = 1 egg
2 tbsp. arrowroot flour = 1 egg
2 tbsp. potato starch = 1 egg
1 banana = 1 egg in cakes
1 Tbs. ground flax seeds plus 3 Tbs. water = one egg * Healthy Choice
Also keep in mind that some children who are sensitive/allergic to chicken eggs do not have the same reaction (check with your child’s physician) to other poultry eggs, such as turkey, goose, quail etc. These eggs can be found at farmer’s markets, Asian markets or online. One mother said she put an ad in the paper to which a local farmer responded and supplied her child with turkey eggs.
Whole Flax Seeds
Use 1 part seeds to 4 parts water (the seed sellers say to use 1 part seeds to 3 parts water, but they’re in the business of selling seeds, aren’t they?). Simmer for 5-7 min. Proceed as described under “Straining”.
For 1 egg, use 4 tsp. seeds to 1/3 cup = 80 ml water (some will boil off).
Use 1 part seeds to 12 parts water, e.g. 4 tsp. seeds per cup of water, or 1 tsp. per 60 ml of water. Soak from 1 hour to overnight, whatever is convenient for you. Simmer for 20 min, and be sure to let gloop cool completely before straining.
Allowing the gloop to cool with the seeds in it makes it thicker. When it is thick and cool enough, pour it into a bowl lined with cheesecloth. Gather up the edges of the cloth and gently squeeze out the gloop, until the cloth contains only seeds. (If you’re trying to use a strainer and it works, your gloop is too thin! Simmer it a bit more…) Compost the seeds (hide them somewhere in tonight’s dinner?), and use the gloop.
To replace 1 egg, use a scant 1/4 cup gloop ( 50 ml gloop)
1 Tbs. ground flax seeds plus 3 Tbs. water replaces one egg. That’s 5 ml milled flaxseed plus 45 ml water Mix them together, and let it sit a couple of minutes (it gets wiggly!), then add as you would eggs
Each egg substitute recipes is equal to one egg (recipes are based on large eggs where 1 egg = 1/4 cup liquid). Eggs are tough to substitute. The trick is figuring out the purpose of the egg in a recipe (binding, leavening, or both). When used in baking, eggs create leavening (rise) and/or binding, and provide richness, color, protein, and tenderness.
If beaten, egg whites also provide extra volume and air. A good rule of thumb (read-not ALWAYS) is to base it on how many eggs are being used in the recipe. If a recipe uses 1 egg, typically they serve as binders. In these cases almost any egg substitute will work. If, however, the recipe uses 2-3 or more eggs, the purpose of the egg is to provide leavening. When in doubt, use substitutes that work to provide leavening. More than 3 eggs may be difficult or impossible to substitute successfully. And in some cases, only real eggs will work (e.g. angel food cakes and some brownie mixes) so check the recipe or box for details.
Egg Recipes that are best used for binding or moisture ONLY— (gets challenging with recipes for chewy brownie mixes and angel cakes)
3 tablespoons any pureed fruit or vegetable (baby foods work great)
1 teaspoon pulverized flaxseed (grind in coffee grinder) placed in 1/3 cup water and brought to boiling. Let cool before using. Or the posted flaxseed recipe.
1 tablespoon of any of the following PLUS 2 Tablespoons warm water: unflavored, unsweetened gelatin OR pectin OR agar OR ground Flaxseed powder
Egg Recipes that can be used for leavening (rising) (and also can be used for binding):
1 1/2 tablespoon soy lecithin granules or oil, 1 1/2 Tablespoon water, and 1 teaspoon baking powder.
1 heaping tablespoon Egg-Replacer® plus 2 tablespoons warm water.
1 heaping tablespoon baking powder*, 1 1/2 tablespoon water, plus 1 1/2 tablespoons oil.
1 heaping tablespoon baking powder*, 1 tablespoon warm water, and 1 tablespoon cider or rice vinegar.
*Note: If a corn-free or low-sodium baking powder is needed, use Featherweight Baking Powder. If you need it also to be potato-free or want to make your own use 1 heaping tablespoon of the following mixture:
1/3 cup baking soda
2/3 cup cream of tartar
2/3 cup arrowroot starch
Blend flours well and store in airtight container. The mix is not very stable since it starts reacting as soon as it is mixed so a scaled down version is below: 1 1/2 teaspoon baking soda, 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar, and 3/4 teaspoons arrowroot or potato starch flour.
When using gluten-free products one might want to boost the leavening power or the egg recipe so I made the adjustments to the above egg recipes for leavening by boosting the leavening agents. Acidic agents such as lemon juice, buttermilk, vinegar, molasses, and other dough enhancers like ascorbic acid all help boost the leavening process too. It also helps greatly to use a high end electric mixer to beat extra air into the dough and create air pockets to trap these leavening gases.
Vanilla and Vinegar
Vanilla extract is typically on an alcohol base, which usually does contain some gluten. Some Celiac people say the amount of gluten in a recipe made with it is too small to matter, and for some it’s too much. It is possible to find gluten-free vanilla (all pure Nielsen-Massey vanillas are gluten-free) made with corn alcohol. The vanilla paste and vanilla powder are both gluten-free. Your other option is just to use whole or ground vanilla beans, which do not contain gluten. In any recipe which has a liquid phase, simply steep the bean in the liquid, or add ground beans to the dry phase of the recipe. It is also possible to make your own gluten-free extract with vanilla beans, using a non-wheat based alcohol such as corn alcohol or very strong potato vodka.
Authentic Foods Vanilla Powder, Frontier Foods Vanilla and others available online at retailers such as http://www.allergygrocer.com/
White vinegar or just plain vinegar are typically distilled, and, if so, are gluten-free. Distilled vinegar can be distilled from wheat, corn, potatoes, beets, wood, apples and many other things. Most in the USA are not made from wheat, but are instead made from corn, potatoes or wood, which are all safe (Heinz white vinegar is distilled from corn).
Distilled vinegar made from wood are gluten-free. Wood-based vinegar is often the vinegar used in processed foods.
Flavored vinegars are made with white, distilled vinegar, and flavorings are then added. Some of these may also not be gluten-free (the cheapest vinegars are used since the flavors are masked by the herbs and flavoring).
Malted vinegars are never gluten-free.
Red and white wine and balsamic vinegars are gluten-free.
Just because you have eliminated soy from your child’s diet doesn’t mean you still can’t have those fabulous Asian dishes! There is a great coconut amino you can buy at the health food stores I use all the time. If you want to make your own here are a few recipes that you can substitute:
4 tablespoons beef bouillon (gluten free)
4 teaspoons balsamic vinegar
2 teaspoons dark molasses
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger
1 pinch white pepper
1 pinch garlic powder
1 1/2 cups water
In a saucepan over medium heat, stir together the beef bouillon, balsamic vinegar, molasses, ginger, white pepper, garlic powder and water. Boil gently until liquid is reduced to about 1 cup, about 15 minutes.
1/2 cup apple cider vinegar
2 tablespoons “soy” sauce (see recipe above)
2 tablespoons water
1 tablespoon molasses
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger
1/4 teaspoon dry mustard
1/4 teaspoon onion powder
1/4 teaspoon garlic powder
1/8 teaspoon cinnamon
1/8 teaspoon pepper
Place all ingredients in a medium saucepan and stir thoroughly.
Bring to a boil, stirring constantly. Simmer 1 minute. Cool.
Store in the refrigerator. Makes about 3/4 cup. Shake well before using.
*Be careful when purchasing Worcestershire Sauce as some brands are made with malted vinegar which are usually not gluten free.
Beef-free gelatin substitute
Most all commercially available gelatin’s, including Knox powder and Jell-o are made from beef. There are many foods that also contain beef-derived gelatin such as marshmallows and vitamin capsules. Below are substitutes that are vegan-friendly.
Agar agar powder and flakes is derived from seaweed
Hint: It sets up a bit softer than animal gelatin’s so you may wish to use a little less water than the instructions say.
Konjac (konniyaku) is made from a tuber similar to a potato.
Hint: You can get in the frozen section of local Asian stores. Some Asian stores sell prepared konjac jelly cups in fruit flavors.
Carrageenan (from red seaweeds)
Locust bean gum (from the seeds of the Carob tree)
Pectin (from apple or citrus-fruit)
Once again thank you TACA (Talk about Curing Autism) www.tacanow.org